The Gulf Of Guinea And The Challenges To Enforce The Maritime Laws For International Security Implications For Sea Transport
Author: B. Jayasuriyan, Saveetha School Of Law
The Gulf of Guinea (GOG) is constituted of the continental coastline in which that borders the Atlantic Ocean and it is about 2.35 million km² in length (appx) and it provides an economic theater to both the coastal and landlocked African countries and it plays an important role on International shipping and also for the business communities in worldwide. But due to the security issues in which that is present in the Gulf of Guinea (GOG) the global business communities are under jeopardy and in order to resolve such numerous international instruments are making its efforts by executing more regulations
Keywords: Gulf of Guinea (GOG), Security, Global business community, Shipping
The Gulf of Guinea (GOG) is constituted of the continental coastline in which that borders the Atlantic Ocean and it is about 2.35 million km² in length (appx) and it provides an economic theater to both the coastal and landlocked African countries and it plays an important role on International shipping and also for the business communities in worldwide. The Gulf of Guinea plays a crucial role on the business community because in the gulf countries like Nigeria and Angola fall under its ambit and such are amongst the world’s top ten crude oil exporters and moreover it is also important to West Africa’s fishing industry as in which it is because, it provides employment and a means of sustenance for a large percentage of the indigenous population, vast mineral resources and commercially valuable marine life, as well as providing strategic maritime transport routes for international shipping.
Insecurity In Gulf of Guinea (GOG)
Due to the change in the socio-economic and political status of the atmosphere in the Gulf of Guinea, the insecurity in the Gulf of Guinea has took different dimensions. Criminal activities like piracy, violence at sea, organized transnational crime, trafficking in drugs and illegal substances, illegal and unrecorded fishing, and other ecological risks and other activities in which that lies in a similar space made a serious threat to life and commercial activity within the area. Apart from this, there are certain factors that would constitute the same, as in which that includes poverty within coastal communities, corruption of government officials, growing unemployment, youth militancy, terrorism, and the lure of quick money provided by criminal enterprise. And moreover as in accordance with the report of the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) records 2016, the Gulf of Guinea is considered to be the most dangerous sea in 2016.
Requirements for Healthy global trade in GOG
- Integrated governance and a trans-regional ocean policy
- Adequate information,
- Human capacity development,
- Technological knowledge and Developments
- Proper institutional policies and
- Technological resources to manage the adverse effects in which that takes place on the marine environment and its ecosystem.
Involvement Of International Instruments
- The Gulf of Guinea Commission (GGC)
- Inter-regional Coordination Center (ICC)
- UN Security Council
- The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
- The Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS)
- The International Maritime Organization (IMO)
- The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
- Regional Conventions and Fisheries Management Boards (RFMBs)
In February 2012, the UN Security Council made Resolution 2039 which made the states within the region to develop counter-piracy policies at both regional and national levels. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), and the Gulf of Guinea Commission (GGC) conducted joint meetings and strategic sessions for drafting regional strategies.And Many other bodies have also been created to deal with the issue of insecurity and facilitate development in the area.
- Environmental problems
- Population pressures
- Institutional responses
- Technology Developments
For an effective far-reaching security for people and cargo within the Gulf of Guinea and along its coasts they need to develop and adopt certain great security architecture and such requires inter-sectoral cooperation amongst the governing bodies. Modern management principles and an integrated governance framework will be needed to improve enforcement and compliance in this ecological belt.
And other factors includes ,
- Ethical values;
- Scientific knowledge,
- Shared information from indigenous knowledge systems;
- Human capacity development;
- Enhanced public awareness systems;
- Technological advancements and innovation.
- Use of science and technology
- Internet connectivity,
- Marine information forecasts,
- Transport efficiency,
- Ocean floor profiling, and
- Marine resource exploitation
It requires institutional frameworks built on a multi-layered approach and coordination and such, will draw support from the coastal communities and through social networking, capacity-building, and effective communication, coastal communities the effort and support participatory governance will be gained