The contemporary international system is in deep crisis because its prominent players, the United States of America and many other Western countries, have shirked away from the fundamental principles of Liberal Democracy and Liberal Economy that have for long been the governing principles of International Peace and Order. The Western states are witnessing the rise of ultra-nationalist, populist, right-wing political actors who feel that promoting a liberal democracy is no longer part of Western political rhetoric and discourse. The notion has been further cemented by Western countries preferring to support some of the most authoritarian and despotic regimes and political leaders worldwide such as Saudi Arabia, Turkey, UAE and Egypt against Democratic movements.
Authored by Aniket Rai, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar
Since the inception of mankind the term of conflict was always prevalent, be it fight for food, or any other survival instinct, but one thing that has always been there is the fact that in some or the other way there have been laws governing that conflict. Even in medieval period, when the idea of consuming territories was on high, there were laws of war governing the conflict and it was expected that both the parties willfully accepts them. In this article we will be trying to understand the concept and ideas of protection of human rights and how they can be included and be made a part of contemporary Humanitarian Law. There have been ideas which have come straight from the cultural buildups of tribe and their aspiration of a society build on equality and respect for other community . The viewpoint that while trying to understand the role of the state actors we cannot forget to include non-state actors in developing laws for society reflect that all the states that have been peaceful or aspire to be peaceful knows that the only way to achieve this is by inclusion practices and ideologies. Since this article emphasis on the practices followed by various African communities, therefore we will try and compare the idea and their application in today’s world. A study conducted by the Geneva cell recently showed that it is very necessary that inclusion must be made for better development of International Humanitarian Law.
Authored by Akashmika Jena, University Law College, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar.